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A solar cell panel, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or solar panel is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment.

A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules adding voltages or current to the wiring and PV system. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for energy storage, charge controller, interconnection wiring, circuit breakers, fuses, disconnect switches, voltage meters, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism.

Equipment is carefully selected to optimize output, energy storage, reduce power loss during power transmission, and conversion from direct current to alternating current.

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